Table 326-0021 29
Consumer Price Index
annual (2002=100)


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Geography = Canada
by Products and product groups; Geography= Canada
Consumer Price Index, annual (2002=100)
Products and product groups 15 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
footnotes
All-items 121.7 122.8 125.2 126.6 128.4
Food 17 130.8 132.4 135.5 140.5 142.6
Shelter 18 127.1 128.7 132.2 133.7 135.8
Household operations, furnishings and equipment 113.0 114.4 116.6 119.7 121.7
Clothing and footwear 92.0 92.1 93.2 94.6 94.4
Transportation 128.1 129.0 130.4 126.5 127.9
Gasoline 182.3 183.4 183.8 153.4 144.2
Health and personal care 118.7 118.3 119.0 120.5 122.2
Recreation, education and reading 105.9 106.2 107.4 109.4 111.3
Alcoholic beverages and tobacco products 137.6 140.4 146.6 152.0 156.8
All-items excluding eight of the most volatile components as defined by the Bank of Canada and excluding the effect of changes in indirect taxes 119.5 121.0 123.2 125.9 128.2
All-items excluding food and energy 25 116.2 117.2 119.0 121.2 123.5
All-items excluding energy 25 118.8 119.9 122.0 124.6 126.9
Energy 25 157.3 159.6 165.3 149.5 145.0
Goods 27 114.0 114.6 116.5 116.8 117.9
Services 28 129.3 131.0 133.7 136.4 138.9


Note: At the request of the Bank of Canada, Statistics Canada produces and publishes the Bank's three preferred measures of core inflation: CPI-trim (trimmed mean), CPI-median (weighted median), and CPI-common (common component). As of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) release on December 22, 2016, the series "All-items excluding eight of the most volatile components (Bank of Canada definition)" has changed to "All-items excluding eight of the most volatile components as defined by the Bank of Canada", while the series "Bank of Canada's core index" has changed to "All-items excluding eight of the most volatile components as defined by the Bank of Canada and excluding the effect of changes in indirect taxes".

Footnotes:

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is not a cost-of-living index. The objective behind a cost-of-living index is to measure changes in expenditures necessary for consumers to maintain a constant standard of living. The idea is that consumers would normally switch between products as the price relationship of goods changes. If, for example, consumers get the same satisfaction from drinking tea as they do from coffee, then it is possible to substitute tea for coffee if the price of tea falls relative to the price of coffee. The cheaper of the interchangeable products may be chosen. We could compute a cost-of-living index for an individual if we had complete information about that person's taste and spending habits. To do this for a large number of people, let alone the total population of Canada, is impossible. For this reason, regularly published price indexes are based on the fixed-basket concept rather than the cost-of-living concept.
This table replaces CANSIM table 326-0002 which was terminated with the release of April 2007 data.
With the introduction of the 1992 basket in January 1995, emphasis was shifted from city data to provincial data. City all-items series were continued since many users had come to rely on this service, but the method of calculation was changed. Shelter indexes are calculated for each city. This recognizes the importance of shelter in the basket, the significant and persistent differences in price movements between cities, and the availability of local data. For the other seven major components, the movement of the provincial counterpart is used except in the cases of Montréal, Toronto, and Vancouver, where a sub-provincial counterpart is used. The major components are aggregated using the city's expenditure pattern to arrive at each city's all-items index.
Formerly Ottawa (Ottawa-Gatineau, Ontario part), represents Ottawa only.
The relatively small size of the housing market in these two cities makes it difficult to construct reliable price indexes for new houses. To compensate, the price movements of rental accommodation are used to approximate the price movements of new houses. The rent information itself is collected using different pricing frequencies and collection methods than in the rest of the country. Because of these problems, the indexes for rented accommodation, and owned accommodation are not published for these two cities. Further, the all-items indexes published for these two cities are not strictly comparable with the same indexes for the provinces or the other 16 cities.
Data for Iqaluit are on a December 2002=100 base (200212=100) and the Standard Geographical Classification (SGC) 2001. Previous to April 1, 1999, the town of Iqaluit formed part of the Northwest Territories. On April 1, 1999, the town of Iqaluit formed part of the newly-created territory of Nunavut.
The goods and services that make up the Consumer Price Index (CPI) are organized according to a hierarchical structure with the "all-items CPI" as the top level. Eight major components of goods and services make up the "all-items CPI". They are: "food", "shelter", "household operations, furnishings and equipment", "clothing and footwear", "transportation", "health and personal care", "recreation, education and reading", and "alcoholic beverages and tobacco products". These eight components are broken down into a varying number of sub-groups which are in turn broken down into other sub-groups. Indents are used to identify the components that make up each level of aggregation. For example, the eight major components appear with one indent relative to the "all-items CPI" to show that they are combined to obtain the "all-items CPI". NOTE: Some items are recombined outside the main structure of the CPI to obtain special aggregates such as "all-items CPI excluding food and energy", "energy", "goods", "services", or "fresh fruit and vegetables". They are listed after the components of the main structure of the CPI following the last major component entitled "alcoholic beverages and tobacco products".
Food includes non-alcoholic beverages.
Part of the increase first recorded in the shelter index for Yellowknife for December 2004 inadvertently reflected rent increases that actually occurred earlier. As a result, the change in the shelter index was overstated in December 2004, and was understated in the previous two years. The shelter index series for Yellowknife has been corrected from December 2002. In addition, the Yellowknife All-items consumer price index (CPI) and some Yellowknife special aggregate index series have also changed. Data for Canada and all other provinces and territories were not affected.
About two thirds (4.7%) of the 7.4% decrease registered between September and October 2004 in the "Digital computing equipment and devices" index series represents a revision to source data.
From April 2006, Statistics Canada changed its implementation of the price index formula used for traveller accommodation. As a result, data from April 2006 are not strictly comparable to earlier time periods.
Eight of the most volatile components identified by the Bank of Canada include: fruit, fruit preparations and nuts; vegetables and vegetable preparations; mortgage interest cost; natural gas; fuel oil and other fuels; gasoline; inter-city transportation; and tobacco products and smokers' supplies.
The special aggregate "energy" includes: "electricity", "natural gas", "fuel oil and other fuels", "gasoline", and "fuel, parts and accessories for recreational vehicles".
The 1986 basket content was divided into seven major components. With the introduction of the 1992 basket, the "housing" component from the 1986 basket definition was split into two components: "shelter" and "household operations, furnishings and equipment". This brought the number of major components to a total of eight. Also, the definition of "shelter" was changed. The traveller accommodation category, which was part of the 1986 definition of "shelter", was moved to "recreation" with the introduction of the 1992 basket. To provide some continuity certain aggregates were reconstructed using their 1986 basket definitions.
Goods are physical or tangible commodities usually classified according to their life span into non-durable goods, semi-durable goods and durable goods. Non-durable goods are those goods that can be used up entirely in less than a year, assuming normal usage. For example, fresh food products, disposable cameras and gasoline are non-durable goods. Semi-durable goods are those goods that may last less than 12 months or greater than 12 months depending on the purpose to which they are put. For example, clothing, footwear and household textiles are semi-durable goods. Durable goods are those goods which may be used repeatedly or continuously over more than a year, assuming normal usage. For example, cars, audio and video equipment and furniture are durable goods.
A service in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) is characterized by valuable work performed by an individual or organization on behalf of a consumer, for example, car tune-ups, haircuts and city public transportation. Transactions classified as a service may include the cost of goods by their nature. Examples include food in restaurant food services and materials in clothing repair services.
Revision of the methodology of the home insurance component of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) beginning with the February 2008 CPI - http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/2301_D39_T9_V1-eng.pdf.
Revision of the methodology of the Internet access services component of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) beginning with the March 2008 CPI- http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/2301_D40_T9_V1-eng.pdf.
In previous years, Statistics Canada updated, by province, the model year of passenger vehicles used in the calculation of the passenger vehicle insurance premiums index over a three month period. Since 2008, this quality adjustment exercise is reflected in the month of May for all provinces.
Revision of the methodology of the Rent component of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) beginning with the July 2009 CPI - http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/2301_D41_T9_V1-eng.pdf.
Revision of the methodology of the prescribed medicines component of the Consumer Price Index (CPI), beginning with the September 2012 CPI - http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/2301_D50_T9_V1-eng.htm.
The timing for the introduction of new model year vehicles into the purchase of passenger vehicles index of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) has changed in 2012. Please consult - http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/2301_D51_T9_V1-eng.htm.

Source:  Statistics Canada. Table  326-0021 -  Consumer Price Index, annual (2002=100 unless otherwise noted),  CANSIM (database). (accessed: )
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